Assignment 1: Development

The Brief:

For this assignment we are asked to produce a series of between four and six composite images – either portraits or landscapes based on our immediate surroundings. I was immediately drawn to the idea making work based in my local area as this is something I have explored in the past and is a continuing interest of mine. The notion that we should focus on what we know and what is familiar is one I believe in strongly – an authentic voice is something I value greatly when looking at the work of other artists, and also something that is impossible to fake. I suspect that some sort of exploration of my local area will form part of my level three work and this is something I intended to explore and develop in the meantime with the hope that I will arrive at level three with a strong idea about the direction I want to take.

The second part of the assignment brief is significant, but also quite prescriptive. We are required to produce work in two different ways – firstly, using traditional cut and paste techniques and the secondly, using digital software. Immediately I knew that the first part of this would be the most challenging for me and realised I would need to spend some time considering this and experimenting. Using two completely different techniques also raised concerns about how the assignment could be brought together as a cohesive whole – I did not want to make two separate pieces of work but knew I would need to find a strategy that brought the separate aspects together somehow.

Research and context:

It is a frustration to me that it has taken so long to get to this point in the course. Reflecting on this I considered how much time I put into research as this is where the bulk of my time has gone and whether I should reduce or cut this out completely. I am concerned that this aspect of my study has become my comfort zone and a diversionary tactic from getting on with producing work. This is certainly something that has been a significant issue in the past, and although it is still part of the problem I feel this is something of a chicken and egg dilemma. The research into artists I have conducted during part one is perhaps the most important aspect for me and has led me to feel quite assured reaching this assignment. I have been able to streamline my workflow as I have progressed and am now more disciplined in knowing when to stop, the most important realisation I have reached however, is that this is an essential part of how I make work and something I am now comfortable with rather than worrying about the time spent on this. The difficulty is that it is often not clear what will become useful or will fire the imagination at a later date – the initial reaction to the work of an artist can often be lukewarm only to change over time, allowing reflection is an important part of this I believe.

Two artists proved to be particularly significant for this assignment – Chris Dorley-Brown and Peter Funch. Interestingly, I became aware of both of these through the recommendations of fellow OCA students. Although I arrived at my initial approach through independent experimentation, finding that these two artists had used similar techniques to me was inspirational rather than a negative. Previously I would probably have discarded my ideas – not doing this shows a growing confidence in my work and willingness to see where experimentation takes me.

Experiments and final approach:

See –

One of my aims for this course was to experiment more and also publish this work on my blog. I am pleased to have started this during part one, although I think there is much more I can do in this regard. The approach has also proved to be a success given that my assignment has evolved from an early experiment I conducted without any preconceptions. (See street scene composites.) For the assignment, I decided to recreate this approach by setting my camera to take images at intervals from a set place over a period of one hour. These source images would then form the basis of the project – an important aspect of which was that I would attempt to make the final work from whatever the result. As the images were made without any intervention from me the element of risk was high, it could be argued however, that if I did not manage to find enough of these images that worked I would have abandoned the project and tried something else. The fact that there was so much of interest for me could be interpreted two ways – it either demonstrates how important chance is in this kind of photography or it could indicate that I was so driven to by the technical confines that I placed on myself for the exercise that I saw qualities in the images that I would ordinarily discount.

Digital approach:

This was always going to be the ‘easiest’ part of the assignment for me in the sense that working digitally is my comfort zone. Despite this, the process was quite painstaking. Similarly to the approach I had taken in street scene composites, I began by creating a scene that contained no people. During this part of the process I realised how changeable the lighting conditions were over the hour period I took the images – something that immediately struck me could cause a problem. I made two ’empty’ composites, the first with cloud cover leaving the scene dark and the second under brighter conditions:

Using the cloudy ’empty’ composite as my background I then began to add people into the scene. The difficulty with this was that it was not always apparent which aspects would work together – I began by choosing people that attracted me somehow only to quickly become frustrated when these would overlap and mean that I would have to make a choice. This led me to begin again and work in a more methodical fashion by considering, and making selections from, each image in turn – a particularly long but ultimately necessary process. By the time I had finished I had created a photoshop file with 1182 individual layers – quite daunting! I put these into groups that referred to different areas of the frame before beginning to narrow my selection using colour coding to denote my preferences.

In my initial experiments I produced diptychs showing each scene both empty or as full of people as possible. Looking at the unedited images I had made for this project, I was struck by how the majority of people were either walking toward or away from the camera and arrived at the idea of making two composites showing this to go with the empty image. As I began blending each individual layer to match the background, I was struck by how the changeable lighting conditions made the way people looked in the scene quite different. Although this drew attention to the artificial nature of the composites, I found this to be an unexpected benefit rather than something to be concerned about – somehow by foregrounding artifice the scenes became heightened and uncomfortable to view. Researching artists as part of this section I was surprised that the work I was most attracted to was that which actively drew attention to the physical nature of the pieces, for example Hannah Höch and Daniel Gordon. It seemed somehow appropriate that my pieces intentionally showed this too, albeit in a more subtle form. Here are some examples of the initial experiments I made:

As I reached the end of this part of the process of experimentation for the digital aspect of the assignment, I began to consider the physical techniques I might use to make composites. With this in mind I went back to the original composites and removed the layer masks to draw attention to the process. The effect is interesting, especially given the way the different tones are accentuated, but my feeling was that this would mean too much overlap between the physical and digital parts of the assignment:

Cut and Paste approach:

Working physically is not something I am used to so I knew this would be the most challenging part of the assignment. Despite this, I had enjoyed experimenting with cut and paste techniques through this section – even if the results of this were not fantastic! I was keen to push myself to try and make something quite elaborate for this section – the indication in the course material about rephotographing these works struck a particular resonance with me and I wondered if I could create something that used photographic techniques to make the final piece in the way that an artist like Daniel Gordon does with his work that is made in three dimensions before finally being outputted as a two dimensional photographic image rather than a sculpture. I had previously experimented with ‘slicing’ the images and bringing each of these together in the final composite (see street scene composites – further experiments) and wondered if it would be possible to create something similar but then arrange them in a way that played with perspective. I selected sections of each image and then had prints made, I then cut these out and stuck a piece of card to the bottom before placing each one in a plastic holder so it would stand vertically. I then arranged these and photographed the results:

I could immediately tell that to make this approach work would require much more work – to arrive at the type of image I was imagining would require printing each ‘strip’ at different sizes, and even then there was no guarantee that I would be able to make them work.

My second idea was to cut sections of the scene out and place onto acetate. I would then photograph these in front of each other to try and give the effect of different layers being separated from the background. Again, I was immediately struck with technical issues as the weight of the sections of prints caused the acetate to bend and not stand up straight, however, placing the acetates over the background image did give an interesting 3D effect:

I also tried removing the background image to leave the selected sections ‘floating’:

I was surprised how well the impression that the images have been physically (rather than digitally) manipulated came across in these – although I knew that this idea of working with acetate would not be a direction I wanted to pursue. I went back to the strips I had picked out earlier and arranged them on a flat surface. The overlap of each strip made a clearly defined but subtle transition between each image:

Although I had originally discounted the idea of arranging strips vertically, probably because I was worried the execution was too simple, there seemed to be something here I could pursue. Because I had chosen random strips of irregular size there was an element of repetition in my selection that was interesting but did not feel like it was working successfully. I decided to go back to the original source images and divide the scene into 10 equal ‘strips’ in Photoshop. I then went through each strip in turn and selected the ones where something interesting was happening before copying and pasting these into another file. I realised that these could follow the same ‘rules’ as the digital composites with two images featuring people and the other one being completely empty. I then brought these together as a digital composite:

At this point I showed the work in progress to my peers in one of our regular Digital Image and Culture hangout sessions. I was encouraged by the positive feedback – particularly about the second set of images that I had been worrying so much about. There was a feeling that it was evident that I had spent a great deal of time selecting each aspect of the image, and interestingly, that although it was evident that these people were brought together from different photographs, there was still a sense of them all being in the same place that was effective. One of the issues with this set is that because I had chosen to have most of the strips filled with a single person or couple, the foreground was empty. It was suggested I could crop the images but this did not seem appropriate to me as an important aspect of the series is that I have used the whole scene as it is to create the composites.

Fellow student Nuala Mahon commented that the ‘strips’ technique reminded her of the work of Serge Mendjisky – an artist that I was not aware of but enjoyed reading more about. The sharing of knowledge with fellow students in our hangout sessions is something that is invaluably useful and worthwhile. (See post on Serge Mendjisky here.)

The next, and final, part of the process was for me to order prints to create the final, physical, composite images. As I liked the way the edges showed in the earlier experiments I had made due to the images overlapping, I decided to have strips that were double the width that I required to accentuate this. After bringing the pieces together, all that was left was to rephotograph the results. Something I will have to consider for assessment is how I will present these images – the brief asks that the physical work is rephotographed, however, the tactile nature of the work would be lost by doing this so I wonder if sending the original would be more appropriate?

Exercise 1.3

Notes on artists cited in this section of the course notes:

Hannah Höch

John Heartfield

Peter Kennard

Lisa Barnard

The brief for this exercise asks us to make collages using readily available images – something quite daunting as making physical work is completely outside of my comfort zone. Anyway, I tried to embrace this and bought all of the requisite tools – scalpel set, cutting board, glue, card to stick everything down on. I then bought a selection of newspapers (broadsheets and red tops) from which to take the raw materials for the exercise. Two news stories were widely reported – the birth of the new new royal baby Prince Archie, this story also had the controversy surrounding Danny Baker and a Twitter comment he had made that had been deemed racist. The other story widely reported was the ongoing Brexit deadlock. So I began cutting and pasting and quickly found the process both enjoyable and relaxing.

At the time of writing this post there is about 3 months elapsed since I started making these collages…perhaps a note on this would be appropriate. Three things have impacted me – firstly, I needed to complete my assessment submission for my last course documentary – something that took much longer and was much more difficult than I anticipated. In hindsight it has been a mistake for me to start digital image and culture without first finishing documentary completely. The other problem I faced with this was that I was quite unhappy with the submission I sent to the assessors and this had a negative effect on my confidence and motivation. Secondly, I have had a very busy time both at work and with family commitments meaning I have had little spare time. And lastly, we have been getting some major building work done in the house which has both taken longer than expected and been much more of an impact than I had anticipated. Thankfully all of this is now complete and I am trying to get back to grips with the course. I am feeling much more philosophical about my documentary submission – I passed the assessment and realise that at this stage this is all that matters in continuing with the degree programme. I do need to find a way I can move through the course quicker however as time is very much against me with this course.

After my hiatus I came back to my half finished collages and had to face up to the fact that part of the reason I had stopped making these half way was that although I was enjoying the process the results were far from anything I was happy to show. However, I resisted the urge to either throw them in the bin or not share them here as I realised it is important to show these as part of the learning and developing exercise that they are…even if this does take me out of my comfort zone.

In making the collages I was influenced by the early Dada pieces of Hannah Höch, John Heartfield and George Grosz such as ‘Cut with the kitchen knife through the belly of the Weimar Republic’ and ‘Life and times in the universal city at 12.05 noon’. The non linear nature of these, particularly the way attention is drawn to the cut and paste nature of the works, is what attracted me – perhaps I was also subconsciously hedging my bets that I could argue anything that looked homemade and rough in my own work was a result of a deliberate strategy on my part! Things I quickly learned from making these collages – using a scalpel is harder than you think, newspaper is not the easiest to cut, it is best to plan what you are doing rather than just sticking everything down, and, glue gets everywhere!

For the first collage about the Royal baby I found two images of Harry and Meghan that I managed to cut out successfully and decided to use at each corner of my A3 piece of card. Unfortunately, these were the first things I stuck in place without really thinking about it which severely limited what I could do compositionally! Also, I ran out of material to be able to add to the collage. I have started to add text which seems to work, but, there is not a enough of this. The ‘finished’ collage would benefit from more pictures and better planning, or being started again from scratch! it is:

For the second piece around the theme of Brexit, I started by creating a background of text made up of random paragraphs cut from the various newspapers. Next, I cut out any politicians associated with Brexit and any headlines or keywords that could be used. Something that struck me about my first attempt was how using pictures cut in a rectangular shape only worked if the edge was completely straight, something I did not achieve with very many. I had bought a compass scalpel so decided to crop all of the pictures out using this – something that contrasted well with the straight edges of the background and the headlines. To bring everything together, I placed everything randomly and then played around with where each image sat before sticking them in place. Again, this is far from something I am pleased with, but as an experimental exercise I have learned a great deal. Putting so many images together in this way can only result in something that is chaotic – something that I was initially interested in achieving but certainly lacks refinement and focus. Despite that, having a more planned approach here has made for a better final result:

Before moving on from this exercise, I decided to have another go using multiples of the same image. I secured half a dozen copies of local listings magazine ‘The Crack’ to use as my source material. I was immediately struck by the cover which featured a black and white portrait of the actor Albert Finney from the 60s looking rather cool and moody. This picture was reprinted on the contents page which gave me 2 sets of 6 identical pictures to use. Below are some rough assemblies of possible ways they could be brought together – I was researching the work of John Stezaker as I made this and his influence is evident:

Although these are just rough experiments where I have been playing around, they were quite enjoyable to make – I may even been improving in my scalpel skills! Looking at these next to the work of Stezaker shows how the simplicity of his approach makes his pieces much stronger. In terms of how this informs the physical requirements of the first part of assignment 1 I am not sure – my instinct is now towards a simple technique, perhaps involving straight cuts through the pictures. Also, I keep thinking about the way Daniel Gordon creates three dimensional work, that could almost be classed as sculpture, before rephotographing the completed compositions. I am wondering if there is a way I can use elements of this, although at this point I have no idea what this would look like.

Exercise 1.2

Notes on artists cited in this section of the course notes:

Jeff Wall

Sam Taylor-Johnson

Daniel Gordon

Hisaji Hara

This exercise asks that we first reflect upon a photograph that uses an existing work of art as its staring point before producing a photograph that does the same. As I began researching I was surprised by the amount of artists who use this approach as a strategy for their work. Some of this I found inspiring, but most left me cold, wondering if this was merely an exercise in aesthetics by the photographer or a demonstration of their own knowledge with the aim of impressing the critic. I also felt uninspired to produce anything myself – what would be the point of making something that is just a pastiche?

As I considered why I felt this way I began to think about the aspects of the work that I admired and what attracted me to them. I also needed to reflect on the possibility that something was preventing me from even trying this exercise – the idea that ‘everything has been done before’ is a potentially paralysing one that I am trying to avoid, and yet I seemed to be caught this trap. By coincidence I came across an essay by Gerry Badger (‘Photography and Photoshop’ in The Pleasure of Good Photographs) that chimed with my concerns about some of the work I was encountering and articulated this in a way I was struggling to. Badger argues that there is far too much work that revolves around art historical references (art about art) and that this approach is often used as a crutch – his reaction to a restaged Vermeer or Hopper is ‘so what?’ Despite this he uses the examples of Andreas Gursky, Jeff Wall and Cindy Sherman as artists who use this approach successfully because “their art is talking more about the world than art…and is creating a persuasive and viable world of its own…there is a quality of both imagination and seeing.” (Badger, 2010: 241) These comments suddenly helped me make sense of my struggle to make work of my own for this exercise and rather than feeling constrained I felt liberated to choose not to do this – perhaps I will come back to this exercise at some point later in the course, at this point however, continuing to progress rather than become hung up on completing every aspect of the course seems the most pragmatic way forward.

Jeff Wall: Picture for Women (1979):

Jeff Wall - Picture for Women (1979)

Also see my post on Jeff Wall which includes some further thoughts on ‘Picture for Women’.

Jeff Wall is an artist I have admired for some time, I am inspired by his meticulous working methods and the way he packs each work with meaning and references that reward close analysis and consideration. Wall studied art history before becoming a photographer which explains the influence this has on his practice. I would argue however that his images can be read without any prior knowledge of the works that inspired them, although arguably prior information could enrich the experience. Many of his works would be difficult to place as being directly inspired without the contextualisation that Wall provides for the work.

The photograph I am drawn to consider here is ‘Picture for Women’ (1979) which Burnett (2005: 13) describes as a “remake” of ‘A Bar at the Foilies-Bergèes’ (1881-2) by Edouard Manet. It is perhaps my prior knowledge of ‘A Bar at the Foilies-Berèes’ (I considered the painting in relation to the notion of photographic realism as part of UVC here) that attracts me to the work – although I stand by my assertion above that prior knowledge of the artworks Wall references is not necessary to appreciate his photographs, being able to recognise how he references Manet here undoubtably enriches my experience. Both pictures deal with themes that are of interest to me, particularly the representation of reality, power relationships in imagery and notions of the male gaze. In his photograph, Wall produces a work that is both response, reference and updating of Manet’s painting. Most importantly, the ambiguity that is central to Manet’s work is front and centre in Wall’s photograph. The similarities and differences in each work are significant – both show a female figure returning the viewers gaze with a mirror used as a device to show more than would otherwise be possible in a ‘straight’ view and draw attention to the artificiality of the picture making process itself. Each show a man, the artist, regarding the woman, the model. Both pictures are voyeuristic – it is unclear  if the woman is unaware or unconcerned about being viewed but the power relationships present seem to suggest that this is something she must accept. Both artists draw attention to the artificiality of the picture making process while using conventions of realistic representation – Manet through his limited depth of field effect in his depiction of the patrons of the bar shown in the reflection, something that is potentially inspired by emerging photographic conventions at the time he made the painting. Wall places a camera front and centre, significantly placing the woman on the left of the composition. Although her pose and gaze reference the bar maid in Manet’s painting, the implication is that the camera is now the subject of the photograph – something which draws attention to the picture making process itself. Despite initially seeming like a captured documentary moment, it is quickly apparent  that Wall’s photograph is carefully constructed and therefore artificial. It is not even certain whether are looking at a reflected image captured by the camera in the photograph or something that is designed to have the appearance of this.

With ‘Picture for Women’ Wall successfully references ‘A Bar at the Foilies-Berèes’ without copying – both works are on the surface deceptively simple and reward reflection and consideration. The ambiguity in both pieces are elements that appeal to me. Ultimately, it is the fact that ‘Picture for Women’ can be read solely on its own terms that drove me to consider it for this exercise –  Manet’s painting is a stepping off point for Wall but ‘Picture for Women’ is not a simple act of copying or pastiche, nor is it a self conscious and knowing attempt to show off his knowledge of art history – the main success is that Wall shows that photographs can be as complex, multilayered and full of narrative potential in a single frame – exactly the same way that a painting can be.


Badger, G. (2010) The pleasure of good photographs. New York: Aperture

Burnett, C. (2005) Jeff Wall. London: Tate Publishing.

Reading – Joan Fontcuberta: I knew the Spice Girls (notes)

Fontcuberta - Pandora's Camera

In ‘I knew the Spice Girls’, Fontcuberta explores the differences, both practical and philosophical,  between analogue and digital photography using the analogy of a digital photo booth. This is a disarmingly simple conceit to use which helps make sense of the complex arguments made – the essay is enjoyably readable and the amusing anecdote of Fontcuberta using a digital photo booth to place himself alongside the Spice Girls in order to impress his daughter is both lighthearted and encourages the reader to identify with his point of view.

The central thesis of the paper is that the technological changes inherent in digital photography creates a whole new category of images that have to be regarded as ‘post-photographic’. Although the eye is unable to tell the difference between a digital and analogue image, the cultural values of photography such as objectivity, truth, identity, memory, document and observation are threatened by a new culture of the “virtual and speculative.” Analogue photography is described as being “inscribed”, of a mechanical nature that is apparently automatic and occurs without intervention – it reflects the real world (although this notion is a symptom of photographic theory around “documentary imperatives” rather than fact.)  Digital photography is “written”, that is it is composed in a way that is closer to the choices made by an artist/author when they are faced with a blank canvas/page. Despite this, digital imagery still simulates analogue culture:

“The paradox, however, is that although we agree that digital technology generically undermines the credibility of the photographic document, this is not really because it allows more or less astonishing, spectacular and seamless interventions in photographic images. The same effects, although more difficult to pull off, could be and were achieved with traditional manipulation techniques. The difference now is our degree of familiarity with these techniques and how easy they are to use.”

The widespread access and understanding of computers and software has demystified and defetishised photographs leading to a “new critical awareness in the viewer” and a “paradigm shift in our reception of images.”

Although digital photography is simpler to use, faster, more powerful, cheaper and cleaner than chemical photography, Fontcuberta ends with a warning that the elimination of chance and ability to correct errors could have the unforeseen side effect on the cameras gaze, particularly the “happy accident”, being neutralised by too much control and rationality. He ends:

“Every innovation obliges us to distinguish between benefits and losses. Of course we want the advantages significantly to outweigh the disadvantages, but since the former always appears at first as promises of happiness, only time and experience will reveal the collateral damage and let is see what we have lost.”

The lack of certainty about where photography and photographic theory is heading because of digital imaging is simultaneously reassuring and troubling. For ideas such as objectivity and realism to be questioned is healthy, but if this means we can no longer trust anything we see then surely this is a depressing state of affairs – something that we unfortunately appear to be heading towards in the age of ‘post truth’.


Fontcuberta, J. (2014) ‘I knew the Spice Girls’ in pps. 56-63 Pandora’s camera: photogr@phy after photography. London: MACK

Exercise 1.1: The Layered Image

Using the list of artists given as inspiration, create a series of six to eight images using layering techniques. To accompany your final images, also produce a 500-word blog post on the work of one contemporary artist-photographer who uses layering techniques.

My approach to this project was to first come up with some ideas about how I might experiment with layering images before beginning my research into the artists cited in the course notes. I decided to attempt to produce a series of portraits by overlaying similar shots of the same sitter. Interestingly, the work I made was similar to that of Idris Khan and Corrine Vionnet – I suspect if I had followed my usual of system of conducting research before the exercise I would not have chosen to layer images the way I have here as I would have found the approach too derivative of these artists.

Notes on the artists cited in the course notes can be found here:

Alexa Wright

Idris Khan

Helen Sear

Nancy Burson

Esther Teichmann

Corinne Vionnet

I produced two variations on the same theme, the first, composite images of head and shoulders portraits of my children and the second, layered images of still shots from the film ‘Taxi Driver’.

Sixty Second Portraits:

One of the things I find intriguing about photography is the way that a still image can capture an individual at a particular moment and how portraits of the same person can sometimes appear totally different. Much has been considered about how to capture the essence of a person photographically. When the camera is pointed towards a subject it is likely the sitter will attempt to put up a barrier, be nervous and attempt to present a ‘preferred’ version of themselves – something that can appear false. One way to negate this is to shoot candidly without the subject being aware, although there are obvious ethical dilemmas involved with this approach. Another is to spend time with the person to put them at ease, and achieve a photograph that is authentic representation – that is assuming you believe it is possible to achieve authenticity at all in a photograph. I decided to photograph a sequence of images of my three children, the camera fixed on a tripod in front of them and the shutter set to trip every second for 1 minute. While the camera worked I spoke to each of them as a way of encouraging them to behave in a natural unguarded way. I was interested to see how the images differed from each other and how these would look when layered on top of each other – would the overlap between parts of the photograph that were the same, and the emphasis this would make on the overall image, provide some sort of truthful representation?

Firstly, I made a composite with the frames aligned exactly as they had been shot. I decided to convert the images to black and white in order to eliminate any differences in tonality and colour balance and emphasise form. I changed the opacity of the individual layers to 10% to allow each one to be seen. This gave a ghostly effect and surprisingly showed how much movement there was during the process.

Amy-composite 1

The resulting image was not as I had envisaged, so for my next attempt I realigned each image around the left eye of the sitter. I found this matched what I had previsualised much more closely, although I was still surprised by the results and not quite sure if I liked the effect:

Amy-composite 2



The images are most closely reminiscent of the work of Idris Khan, particularly because they are black and white. In my research Khan states that he does not use every part of each image employing selection and masking techniques to accentuate or detract from particular elements. He does not go into detail on how he does this, but it appears to me to be the difference between his images and mine. However, if I made this choice for this set however it would go against my initial concept.

After conducting my research, I decided to experiment by making a Nancy Burson style composite of all three children put together, similar to her approach here and here. The resulting image is quite rough and ready as I have not spent a huge amount of time on it. The effect is quite off putting – perhaps emphasised by the fact that being my children I know the subjects well.

Caitlin-Thomas-Amy Composite

Taxi Driver Composites:

As film is literally a series of still images displayed in sequence to give the illusion of movement, I began to think about the possibility of showing an entire feature film as one image. (Jason Schulman is an artist I came across some time ago that experiments with this idea, although his approach is to make one exposure of the entire film rather than layer together individual stills. See article here, and Shulman’s version of ‘Taxi Driver’ here.)

‘Taxi Driver’ seemed to be an ideal subject for this approach as it is almost entirely a first person narrative shown from the point of view of the main protagonist Travis Bickle. I initially tried to take screen shots of the film on my computer but was thwarted by the anti piracy measures built into the streaming services I attempted this with. Next, I placed the camera on a tripod in front of the screen and set the interval timer to shoot every 1 minute – this would give me around two hundred individual shots to work with. My first attempt was to layer all of these images together which produced this effect:

Taxi Driver Composite.jpg

Next I tried masking individual parts of each image to concentrate attention:

Taxi Driver Composite 2.jpg

This has the effect of making individual parts of the image stand out more clearly, and, because there are less overlapping parts of the image in the composite, saturation and contrast are increased.

Next, I experimented with selecting images that just contained Travis and again, masked out parts of the image that were unnecessary. I also moved the layers around:

Travis composite 1 (20%)

Lastly, I tried the same technique again but with the layers arranged in different alignments:

Travis composite 2.jpg

At the time of completing these experiments I was more interested in the experimentation itself rather than the end result. Looking back, both approaches could have potential for further exploration, particularly the film approach.

Reading – Geoffrey Batchen: Ectoplasm: Photography in the digital age (notes)

In this paper, Batchen explores discourse around two apparent crises faced by photography that have the potential to threaten the ‘end’ of photography and the culture which it sustains:

Technological – the increasing prevalence of computer based imagery which can be so easily faked that the real can no longer be distinguished from the fake, meaning, the relationship between the photograph and objective truth is threatened.

Epistemological – which is concerned with broader changed in ethics, knowledge and culture, particularly the idea that the artificial nature of the digital image could lead to a time where it is no longer possible to tell the original from its simulation.

Following this, Batchen embarks on an interesting historical survey of the relationship between photography and death – a literal response to the prophesied death of photography by digital imaging. When he returns to directly address this question, the fact that the paper was written in 1994 becomes starkly apparent. Questions such as the value of the digital image over the physical photographic object and the concern about the authenticity of digital imaging have now been considered and accepted. The idea that digital images are closer in spirit to the creative process of art that the truth values of documentary is an interesting notion however. Discussion about photo illustration versus straight photography now seems quaint and the famous case studies of the 1982 National Geographic cover which moved the pyramids closer together (see article here) and the Time magazine cover featuring a digitally darkened mugshot of O.J. Simpson (see here) are historically important. I wonder however, if these images would receive the same attention today, and if not, does this mean we are more visually literate and able to understand the difference between straight photography and illustration, or, that an increased acceptance of changes to images mean that our ethical standards have become lowered?


Batchen, G. (1994) Ectoplasm: photography in the digital age. Available at: [accessed 16th January 2019]

Goldberg, S. (2016) How we spot altered pictures. National Geographic, July 2016. Available at: [accessed 17th March 2019]

Reading – Geoffrey Batchen: Obedient numbers, soft delight (notes)

On page 19 of the course notes we are directed to read Chapter 8 of ‘Each Wild Idea’ by Geoffrey Batchen, ‘Obedient numbers, soft delight’. This essay explores the relationship between photography and computing which Batchen argues is incorrectly considered a new concern. Batchen demonstrates that in fact the invention of both technologies developed at the same time and that photography and computing innovators Henry Fox Talbot and Charles Babbage had a close relationship, shared interests and expertise and took a deep interest in each others work.

While the essay contains much interesting historical information, I am unconvinced by Batchen’s assertion that recent concerns about the impact of computing on photographic practice (such as the ability to manipulate and fabricate images) is misplaced because of their invention at a similar time. While early cameras are still recognisable as instruments that make photographs (and digital cameras are also recognisable as such), Babbage’s early computers cannot be compared with modern machines. However, the link made between the emergence of computing and photography from the cultural and social conditions of the nineteenth century is convincing and a strong reason why we should not be concerned about computers being a risk to the photograph. Indeed, technological advancements in computing and digital imaging develop side by side. Batchen concludes: “computing’s future, like photography’s, is already inscribed in its past. What is demanded from us is a new perception of the relationship between these three moments (past, present, future) – a new perception of history itself.”


Batchen, G. (1998) Obedient numbers, soft delight. In: Each wild idea pp. 165-174. Available at: [accessed 16th January 2019]